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Combined targeted and untargeted profiling of volatile aroma compounds with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for differentiation of virgin olive oils according to variety and geographical origin.

Lukic, Igor; Carlin, Silvia; Horvat, Ivana; Vrhovsek, Urska.
Food Chem; 270: 403-414, 2019 Jan 01.
Article in En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174064


Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS) was combined with conventional mono-dimensional GC-MS to differentiate Croatian virgin olive oils (VOO) according to variety and geographical origin, based on the profile of volatile aroma compounds isolated by HS-SPME. More than 1000 compounds were detected after untargeted profiling and 256 were identified or tentatively identified, providing one of the most detailed profiles of volatile aroma compounds in VOO up to date. Among them, 131 volatile compounds were significantly different across monovarietal VOOs, while 60 were found useful for the discrimination according to geographical origin. Many major lipoxygenase and minor non-lipoxygenase-generated compounds were shown to have discriminating ability with respect to both factors. Multivariate statistical analysis extracted twenty-one volatile markers with the highest discriminant power for varietal differentiation. The approach reported may have practical application in better understanding, defining, managing, and communicating the varietal or geographical typicity of monovarietal VOOs.